Federal judges article of

The judges on the lists below were presidential appointees who have been confirmed by the Senate, and who served on the federal bench for over 40 years. It includes neither Article I judges e. Tax Court nor Article IV judges. No Justice has served actively on the United States Supreme Court for over 40 years, but five have eclipsed that timespan through senior service. Justice John Paul Stevens served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit from November 2, to December 19,and thereafter served on the Supreme Court until assuming senior status on June 29,just four months short of 40 years of active federal judicial service.

Justice Stephen Johnson Field served on the Supreme Court for 34 years, following 6 years on the California Supreme Court, for 40 years of mixed state and federal judicial service. Only one intermediate appellate court judge has served more than 40 years actively, however many have eclipsed that timespan through senior service:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center.

Archived from the original on Retrieved This area largely coincided with the existing Western District of Virginia.

United States federal judge

The portion of Virginia remaining loyal to the Union became the state of West Virginiawhich was admitted as a state on June 20, On June 11,by 13 Stat. John Jay Jackson, who had been appointed to the Western District of Virginia, was reassigned by operation of law to the newly formed District of West Virginia. At the same time, John Curtiss Underwood, who had been appointed to the Eastern District of Virginia, was reassigned by operation of law to the newly formed District of Virginia.

On February 3,the District of Virginia was again subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts, and Underwood was reassigned to the Eastern District, until his death. Categories : Lists of people by time in office Lists of American judges United States federal judges.

federal judges article of

Hidden categories: Articles with hCards. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Add links. Joseph William Woodrough. April 3, April 12, Skip to main navigation.

Federal judges work to ensure equal justice under the law. Learn about the different kinds of federal judges and the cases they hear. Article III of the Constitution governs the appointment, tenure, and payment of Supreme Court justices, and federal circuit and district judges.

Article III judges can be removed from office only through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction by the Senate. Track authorized judgeships from to present. Article III judicial salaries are not affected by geography or length of tenure. The nine justices of the U.

Supreme Court are nominated by the president and confirmed by the U. They hear cases and controversies arising under the Constitution or U. Learn more about Supreme Court justices. Court of Appeals judges, also known as circuit judges, sit in one of the 12 regional circuits across the United States, or the Federal Circuit.

They usually sit in a panel of three judges and determine whether or not the law was applied correctly in the district court, also known as trial court, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies and some original proceedings filed directly with the courts of appeals. District court judges sit in one of 94 district or trial courts across the United States.

They handle civil and criminal cases. A district court judge typically is responsible for supervising the pretrial process and conducting trials, which includes a variety of procedures including:.

Learn more about appellate court and district court judgeshipswhich are created by legislation enacted by Congress. Article III judges who have met age and service requirements set by federal statute are eligible to take senior status if they are at least 65 years old and have served at least 15 years on the bench, or any combination of age and years of service thereafter that equals Regardless of age, judges must serve at least 10 years to qualify for senior status.

Upon taking senior status, judges may choose to handle a reduced caseload.

Federal court judge dismisses 'extraordinary' Trump lawsuit seeking to overturn Wisconsin election

Senior judges handle about 20 percent of the total district and appellate caseload. By taking senior status, even if maintaining a full caseload, a judge creates a vacancy on the court, to be filled by the nomination and confirmation process for Article III judges.

Senior judges receive the salary of their position at the time of taking senior status as an annuity. Because there is no mandatory retirement age for Article III judges, there is no requirement that they take senior status.

There are other types of judges and judicial offers preside over certain kinds of cases, matters, and proceedings.

Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present

Magistrate judges are judicial officers of the U. They have authority to issue warrants, conduct preliminary proceedings in criminal cases, such as initial appearances and arraignments, and hear cases involving petty offenses committed on federal lands. In most districts, magistrate judges handle pretrial motions and hearings in civil and criminal cases. While most civil cases are tried by district judges, magistrate judges may also preside over civil trials if all parties consent.

Like other federal judges, all full-time magistrate judges are paid the same salary, regardless of where they serve or their years of service. The position and authority of magistrate judges was established in They must also be vetted by a merit selection panel that consists of lawyers and non-lawyers from the community. By majority vote of the U. In addition, there are a small number of part-time magistrate judges who serve four-year terms. The number and location of magistrated judges is determined by the Judicial Conference of the United States.

Bankruptcy judges receive the same annual salary, no matter where they serve or how many years of service. They are appointed to renewable year terms by a majority of the judges of the U. Court of Appeals for their circuit with assistance from the circuit council. The bankruptcy judge position was established inand the appointment process is set by Judicial Conference policy, in accordance with the Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of Bankruptcy judges must meet eligibility criteria, including being a member of the bar in good standing.A federal judge threw out one of President Donald Trump's election lawsuits Saturday, dealing the Republican president and his supporters their seventh legal loss in 10 days as they seek to flip Wisconsin's results.

Biden won Wisconsin's election by about 21, or 0. Trump sought to have the Republican-led Legislature, rather than voters, decide how to allocate Wisconsin's 10 electoral votes. In a hearing Thursday, Ludwig told Trump's legal team that giving that power to lawmakers would result in "probably the most remarkable ruling in the history of this court or the federal judiciary.

The state Supreme Court last week refused to take up three lawsuits filed by Trump and his allies challenging the election results. On Wednesday, U. District Judge Pamela Pepper dismissed a lawsuit by a Republican Party official who alleged a web of election conspiracies involving Iran, China, deceased Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and an anonymous source who goes by the name Spider. And in another, the U. Trump and his backers have faced similar setbacks in dozens of cases around the country, with courts finding no evidence of widespread fraud or improprieties.

He also argued clerks should not have set up absentee ballot drop boxes and should not have filled in the addresses of witnesses on absentee ballot envelopes. The policy for witness addresses was put forward by Republicans on the state Elections Commission four years ago.

federal judges article of

State law leaves it to voters to determine if their age or a disability renders them indefinitely confined. But Ludwig wrote that the state Legislature had given the Wisconsin Elections Commission the ability to advise clerks on how to set up their election procedures. Siding with Trump would allow every losing candidate to run to court after each election, he wrote. Patrick Marley Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. View Comments.These are courts created by Congress under its power under Article I of the Constitution and include:.

There are federal courts located in the districts of Guam, the U.

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Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. In most instances, these courts function as U. These courts, called legislative courts to distinguish them from Constitutional courts, function similarly to state and local courts as well as performing their federal role.

The legislative courts have jurisdiction over local cases and also those arising under federal law. These courts may also be given duties by Congress that are not strictly judicial in nature.

List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump

Unlike the other federal courts, they were created by Congress under the article of the Constitution that grants Congress authority over the territories and other fields of federal power.

The judges of the legislative courts are appointed for a term of 10 years. They are not protected under the Constitution against salary reduction during their terms of office. In addition to the territorial courts, Congress exercised its power under Article I of the Constitution to establish the U.

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Court of Military Appeals, the U. Court of Veterans Appeals, the U. Court of Federal Claims, and the U. Tax Court. The U. Court of Military Appeals was created by Congress in At that time, Congress also enacted the Uniform Code of Military Justice, which established a military judicial system.

This system was designed to balance the need to maintain discipline in the armed forces and to give members of the military services who are accused of crimes rights paralleling those of accused persons in the civilian community. The court's jurisdiction is worldwide but encompasses only questions of law arising from trials by court-martial in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard in cases where a death sentence is imposed, where a case is certified for review by the Judge Advocate General of the accused's service, or where the accused, who faces a severe sentence, petitions and shows good cause for further review.

Such cases are subject to further review by the Supreme Court of the United States. The Supreme Court may also review cases in which the court grants extraordinary relief. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction to review decisions of the military appellate courts in which the United States has taken an appeal from rulings by military judges during trials by court-martial. In the year ended September 30,1, cases were filed in the U. Court of Military Appeals and 1, cases were terminated.

The five judges of the Court of Military Appeals are civilians appointed for year terms by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The chief judge serves for five years and is succeeded by the next senior judge on the court. The court is located in Washington, D. Court of Veterans Appeals was created by Congress in to exercise exclusive jurisdiction over the decisions of the Board of Veterans' Appeals on the motion of claimants.

Such cases include all types of veterans' and survivors' benefits, mainly disability benefits, and also loan eligibility and educational benefits. In the year ended June 30,the U. Court of Veterans Appeals reviewed 1, cases and terminated 1, Its decisions are subject to limited review by the U. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

The court has seven judgeships. The judges of the court are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The court is based in Washington, D.Currently, there are 25 nominations to Article III courts awaiting Senate action: One for the courts of appeals, 23 for the district courts, and one for the Court of International Trade.

Court of International Trade. There are currently five vacancies on the U. Court of Federal Claims and one vacancy on the U.

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Tax Court. Trump designated Susan G. BradenMargaret M. Sweeneyand Eleni M. Roumel as chief judges of the Court of Federal Claims. There are currently no vacancies and one nomination awaiting Senate action. Trump has not elevated any judges to the position of chief judge. Trump with his first Supreme Court nominee, Neil Gorsuch. Trump with his second Supreme Court nominee, Brett Kavanaugh. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wikipedia list article. This article is part of a series about. President of the United States. Presidential campaigns. Interactions involving Russia. Business and personal. Main article: Donald Trump Supreme Court candidates.

Subsequently renominated on January 8, Subsequently renominated on January 23, Subsequently renominated on February 6, Nominated to a different seat on the Ninth Circuit on October 15, Subsequently renominated on the same day.In addition to the Supreme Court of the United Stateswhose existence and some aspects of whose jurisdiction are beyond the constitutional power of Congress to alter, Congress has established 13 courts of appeals also called "circuit courts" with appellate jurisdiction over different regions of the United States, and 94 United States district courts.

Every judge appointed to such a court may be categorized as a federal judge; such positions include the chief justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court, circuit judges of the courts of appeals, and district judges of the United States district courts. All of these judges described thus far are referred to sometimes as "Article III judges" because they exercise the judicial power vested in the judicial branch of the federal government by Article III of the U.

Other judges serving in the federal courts, including magistrate judges and bankruptcy judgesare also sometimes referred to as "federal judges"; however, they are neither appointed by the president nor confirmed by the Senate, and their power derives from Article I instead.

The primary function of the federal judges is to resolve matters brought before the United States federal courts. Most federal courts in the United States are courts of limited jurisdiction, meaning that they hear only cases for which jurisdiction is authorized by the United States constitution or federal statutes.

District court judges are recognized as having a certain degree of inherent authority to manage the matters before them, ranging from setting the dates for trials and hearings to holding parties in contempt or otherwise sanctioning them for improper behavior. In other circumstances their actions are dictated by federal law, the federal rules of procedure, or "local" rules created by the specific court system itself.

Judges hold their seats until they resign, die, or are removed from office.

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Although the legal orthodoxy is that judges cannot be removed from office except by impeachment by the House of Representatives followed by conviction by the Senate, several legal scholars, including William RehnquistSaikrishna Prakash, and Steven D.

Smith, have argued that the Good Behavior Clause may, in theory, permit removal by way of a writ of scire facias filed before a federal court, without resort to impeachment. Chief Justice John Roberts has repeatedly pleaded for an increase in judicial pay, calling the situation "a constitutional crisis that threatens to undermine the strength and independence of the federal judiciary". One way for attorneys to soften the financial blow is to spend only a few years on the bench and then return to private practice or go into private arbitration, but such turnover creates a risk of a revolving door judiciary subject to regulatory capture.

Thus, Chief Justice Roberts has warned that "judges are no longer drawn primarily from among the best lawyers in the practicing bar" and "If judicial appointment ceases to be the capstone of a distinguished career and instead becomes a stepping stone to a lucrative position in private practice, the Framers' goal of a truly independent judiciary will be placed in serious jeopardy. Each federal judge serves at a particular "duty station" for the duration of his or her federal service.

This is important because of the relationship among several federal statutes. First, 28 U. Section also prescribes that the District of Columbia is the duty station of all members of the U. Supreme Court, the D. Circuit, the Federal Circuit, and the U. District Court for the District of Columbia. Second, there are several reasons federal judges need to transact official business outside of their regular courthouse.

The federal court system, explained

Many federal judges serve on administrative panels like the judicial council for their circuit or the Judicial Conference of the United States.

Some of the larger circuit courts like the Ninth Circuit hold regular sessions at multiple locations, and randomly select three-judge panels to hear appeals from all sitting circuit judges regardless of duty station.

Videoconferencing is sometimes now used to reduce the burden of frequent travel on circuit judges. The discipline process of federal judges is initiated by the filing of a complaint by any person alleging that a judge has engaged in conduct "prejudicial to the effective and expeditious administration of the business of the courts, or alleging that such judge is unable to discharge all the duties of the office by reason of mental or physical disability.

The committee must conduct such investigation as it finds necessary and then expeditiously file a comprehensive written report of its investigation with the judicial council of the circuit involved. Upon receipt of such a report, the judicial council of the circuit involved may conduct any additional investigation it deems necessary, and it may dismiss the complaint. If a judge who is the subject of a complaint holds their office during good behavior, action taken by the judicial council may include certifying disability of the judge.

The judicial council may also, in its discretion, refer any complaint under 28 U. The Judicial Conference may exercise its authority under the judicial discipline provisions as a conference, or through a standing committee appointed by the chief justice. Once a judge meets age and service requirements they may retire and will then earn their final salary for the remainder of their life, plus cost-of-living increases. The "Rule of 80" is the commonly used shorthand for the age and service requirement for a judge to retire, or assume senior statusas set forth in Title 28 of the U.

Code, section c. Under section a survivor's annuity to benefit the widow, widower or minor child of the judge may be purchased via a deduction of 2.

There are currently authorized Article III judgeships: nine on the Supreme Court, on the courts of appeals, for the district courts and nine on the Court of International Trade. The total number of active federal judges is constantly in flux, for two reasons. First, judges retire or die, and a lapse of time occurs before new judges are appointed to fill those positions.Esther Salas' son Daniel Anderl, 20, was shot and killed on July Esther Salas, the federal judge whose son was shot dead in July by a disgruntled defense lawyerhas penned a powerful essay about the tragedy.

When her son Daniel Anderl answered the door, the year-old was shot and killed. Salas' husband Mark Anderl was shot three times and seriously injured. A lawyer who had appeared before me was angered by the pace of a lawsuit he had filed in my court. He came to my home seeking revenge," she wrote. Den Hollander posed as a Fed-Ex delivery driver to carry out the shooting.

My husband slowed the attack further by staying on his feet even after he was hit by three gunshots at close range. By the time I reached the main floor, the attacker had fled," she recalled. Want to keep up with the latest crime coverage?

Salas said since her son's death nearly five months ago, she has "vowed to do everything I can to make similar tragedies less likely. But its importance goes beyond our well-being alone," she wrote. Federal judges must be free to make their decisions, no matter how unpopular, without fear of harm. The federal government has a responsibility to protect all federal judges because our safety is foundational to our great democracy. Salas, who was nominated to the U.

Removing our personally identifiable information from the internet is a critical first defense. Esther Salas, N.

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FB Tweet ellipsis More. Get push notifications with news, features and more. You'll get the latest updates on this topic in your browser notifications. Image zoom. Esther Salas and her son, Daniel Anderl.

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